Human Resource Development: Training and Development


In this present world of prevailing dynamism devoid of a well-trained, skilled team of employees any business can never grow and prosper. In progress staff training and development is fundamental if the employer wants to perk up company performance and fulfill his objectives. Devoid of a subservient, well-trained team any organization would not develop and flourish. But there exist a number of programs to make certain the employees in the company possess the adequate understanding and experience requisite. It is the Staff Development and Training Division in an organization that endeavors to develop individual performance in the guidelines as desired and prescribed by the library manager. If the program is persuaded properly, employees in an organization will as well be developed individually.

This paper deals with specific issues in the field of training and development. In particular, various aspects associated with the relationship between training and the development of the employee are explored. Further, the issue is analyzed in the context of HR in the existing business environment. However, before proceeding any further, taking a close look at the concepts of training and development and understanding them is vital.

Literature Review

Training and development are in essence two separate concepts. Training is the act of guiding or motivating individuals who comprise the workforce of an organization whereas management is the act of preparing, organizing, and monitoring the course of the work progression. An individual might assume the role of a supervisor i.e. direct the workforce without shouldering the responsibilities of a manager. Likewise, an individual might take up the role of a manager i.e., plan and monitor the course of work progression without overseeing the activities of the workforce. Nevertheless, in most practical circumstances, many supervisors do some managerial work and most managers are assigned the job of training. Here, it is essential to apprehend that supervision and management are two different and dissimilar activities calling for two very dissimilar proficiencies. (Hales, 2005)

Technically viewed, training and development seep into all facets of our existence. It is also important to understand that this is educated and not innate conduct. The framework formed by management and supervision is a more proficient means of realizing work objectives. This approach in relation to the working procedure has a definitive impact on all walks of human life.

Dos mentioned that Staff Development and Training team in an organization is a division of the Human Resources Directorate providing a shore-up overhaul to the employees of the particular organization. The Staff Development and Training teams are employed in companies to hold up as well as enhance the developmental requirements of all employees. The endeavor of these teams is to lend a hand to the employees in developing as individuals and make them available “with advancement prospects that will be of assistance to their contribution to institutional objectives.” (Dos, 2005, 67) Similarly according to David Lamb Staff Development and Training teams administer core advancement programs however “endow with supplementary development line ups when requirements or demand starts soaring.(Lamb, 2004, 174)

According to Kar, for new, inexperienced employees, for the most part, young employees there should be programs like Skill seekers, which builds up expertise and prepares them for the world of work, and Modern Apprenticeships, which provide elevated excellence in training for employment at dexterity, technician and management level across a range of industries, These “assist the employer in training employees to nationally documented standards.” (Kar, 2005, 133) Dollard here mentions that there exist in addition other programs, like “Investors in People and National Training Awards to recognize one’s accomplishments developing a well turned out, doing well team.” (Dollard, 2006, 17)

Fletcher, in this context, makes an important observation. Various universities, as well as private organizations all over the globe, are nowadays launching industrial staff training programs. The Staff Development and Training unit is one such program launched by Queen’s University UK. The unit has developed over the years and at the moment synchronizes greater than one forty-five courses per year concerning “fourteen hundred employees and resources over five hundred associates of staff in other development performances.” (Fletcher, 2007, 98)

King recommends that training itineraries and workshops are to be had casing several like chalk and cheese proficiencies and areas of development. The unit as well deals with corporate stimulations for new employees and endow with guidance on utilizing different kinds of development prospects, for instance, work shadowing and team development. The unit works intimately in the company of other contributors of staff training in the University, together with the Centre for Lifelong Learning, which offers support for all personnel concerned in education, instruction, and estimation across the University, and Computing Services, who deal with “training in the Information Technology associated vicinities.” (King, 2005, 79)

However, it should be noted that adult learning holds the key in this context. Adult learning is the process of training, schooling, and enlightening adults. This usually takes place at the workplace, by means of ‘extension’ or ‘continuing education’ initiatives at high schools, at an academy, or university. Other learning places include schooling establishments, community colleges, and social learning institutions. Usually, the process is also known as ‘Training and Development’. Adult learning is assigned a specific term known as andragogy in order to differentiate it from pedagogy which relates to strategies of delivering instructions, or an approach towards education in general. Adult learning is also different from vocational education, which is typically carried out at workplaces and normally refers to upgrading the skills of the employee, and informal adult education together with training on skill development or erudition for personal growth.

Edification of adults is different from teaching children in numerous ways. One of the most significant differentiation is that adults throughout the course of their lifetime have already developed a certain level of understanding and gathered some degree of experience that can facilitate or on the contrary impede the learning process. Further, for the most part, adult learning is a voluntary process. Consequently, the participants are commonly better motivated. (Merriam, Caffarella & Baumgartner, 2007)

Adults often put their knowledge into application in a much more realistic manner to be trained more effectively. They tend to have rational anticipation that the awareness gained from learning initiatives will assist them in advancing and accomplishing their objectives. One illustration widespread throughout the 1990s was the increase in computer training programs in which adults, primarily office workers and experienced professionals participated. Another more general example is that of the high-school dropouts in the United States, who go back to learning establishments in order to complete general learning necessities. (Ross-Gordon, 2005) Thus, it is essential to maintain a well-balanced training program that can induce proper learning, training and result in future development for the employees.


Training and learning requirements of employees are identified and all employees, irrespective of their organizational rank, are subject to satisfactory levels of training. Follow-up underpinnings and maintenance education are provided. Managers and supervisors are also required to acquire the essential interpersonal and soft skills necessary for providing valued feedback.

Training and development measures and norms are evidently describes in work policies and are purpose oriented, correlated with job profiles and established on performance standards upon which the group or individual can exercise control. Consequences are quantifiable about individual, work group or team accomplishments and objectives are testing yet achievable. Training and development is one of the most essential aspects in all industries.

For example, Hospitality industry is primarily customer satisfaction oriented. Business depends immensely on the amount and quality of services provided to the client. In that context, Training and development plays a vital role. It looks at issues from the root causes. Enhancing job satisfaction of employees increases their dedication and commitment to the business objectives, which in turn helps them to provide better quality of service to the clients resulting in increased profitability. On the other hand, it also takes measures based on customer feedback to evaluate the performance of the employees would also help Training and development process. (Petty, 2008)

Staff training emerged as a major challenge faced by managers in the hospitality industry in the recent past. Shuffling workforce among departments and replacing employees led to decreased service qualities, which hampered the business process largely. In order to prevail over this problem, mangers increasingly started to fall back on the Training and development management tool in the form of Counseling, Coaching and Mentoring. Previously this form of Training and development facilities was made available to only senior managers and administrative personnel.

Recently this incentive was extended to all employees who required such measures irrespective of organizational rank. Specialized and skilled coaches were hired to help employees sort out their problems. Senior employees were encouraged to guide their subordinates through intricate situations. Such measures helped to bring about a great degree of reduction in the staff turnover. Trump International Hotel recorded a 23 percent decrease in staff turnover by means of employing such techniques. (Petty, 2008)

Various options are available to organizations in the current market scenario about the Training and development initiatives. In addition to the in-house Training and development management strategies, hotels and tourism organization outsource the process to third party firms who specialize in the process to maintain credibility. Hotels like Princeton Residency make use of information technology products specifically designed for the purpose. GoPlaces Pvt. Ltd., a tourism company based in Singapore ties up with Infor International to review periodically the Training and development strategies in order to uphold the efficiency of the system, which facilitates them to provide better services to its clients. (Eccles, 2008)

A good management policy to evaluate the Training and development of an employee has a great impact on the psyche of the employee. Different managers and supervisors have different approaches in dealing with performance related variables. However, there are a few good management practices, which lead to improvement of the morale of the employee, which in turn generates greater job satisfaction. First, when designing Training and development appraisal systems the level of motivation of the employee should be considered. To do that, a manager first needs to identify the needs of an employee. Maslow’s ‘hierarchy of needs’ may serve as a guideline here. It states that after the fulfillment of the basic biological needs of a human being he requires psychological safety. Following these need being fulfilled every human being requires social intimacy and respect. (Petty, 2008)

Only on fulfillment of all these requirements can a person reach the stage of self-actualization. Once the needs of the employee are identified a managers must see to it that the work environment provided to the employees is a congenial atmosphere to work in as mentioned previously. However, Fredrick Herzberg’s 2 factor Hygiene and Motivation theory points out that just providing a hygienic environment is not enough to motivate an employee. His work should be efficiently appreciated and recognized and he should be given a suitable degree of authority in his job to make him feel responsible. Such an approach caters to the above-identified needs of the employee. The management should understand that employee oriented administration is more beneficial as compared to job oriented management.

Simply put, it can be said that the more a job is administered the less fruitful is the workforce. Rensis Likert, an American organizational psychologist in his works point out the significance of a participative group system in which the management demonstrate complete confidence in their subordinates. He suggests that a supportive framework fostered by mutual respect increases levels of motivation in employees. Douglas McGregor in his Theory X and Theory Y identifies the common assumptions made by managers about their subordinates.

Theory X points out to the assumptions which presume that the employee needs direction and security above all and thus use of proper control and threat are required to tackle them. This approach is undoubtedly the wrong way of thinking. In his Theory Y McGregor refers to the significance of job satisfaction in enhancing the employee’s commitment to the organization. He argues that suitable appreciation of the cognitive capabilities of the employee leads to better Training and development levels and increased commitment. (Eccles, 2008)

There are several advantages of exercising a structured procedure for heightening employee Training and development. Improved organizational profitability, increased employee responsibility, equitable treatment of employees and enhanced quality of work life ensues from a proper Training and development System. And above all these lead to greater job satisfaction of the employee.


Putting a structured Training and development system in place is of immense importance in the current competitive market scenario. Training and development of employees are assets to an organization. There are various factors linked to the performance variables of an employee. Some of these factors are: the extent to which the needs of the employees are met; the working environment and conditions; the development, motivation and above all job satisfaction of the employee. Employing suitable management practices in order to enhance their job satisfaction and increasing their commitment levels towards the organization can prove to be very significant in retaining these assets.

It can be concluded with that healthy relations between the management and the employees only can bring prosperity to the company. Thus, the training aspect of Human Resources Management system is not simply about trade unions and industrial relations between managements and employees. In fact it is a definition which portrays the projection and maintenance of understanding, togetherness, and essential values and ethics as accepted by both the management and the workers of the companies which can only be achieved by training and development. So, it is essential to induce actions that can be brought about by employing Staff Development and Training team in organizations for supporting as well as augmenting the developmental needs of all employees.


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Dollard, J. (2006) Human Resource: A look into Tomorrow. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

Eccles, D. (2008). Implications of domain-general support skills for transfer of skill and acquisition of expertise. Performance Improvement Quarterly 21(1), 43-60.

Fletcher, R. (2007). Beliefs and Knowledge: Believing and Knowing. NY: Howard & Price.

Hales, C. (2005). Rooted in Supervision, Branching into Management: Continuity and Change in the Role of First-Line Manager. Journal of Management Studies 42(3), 471-506.

Kar, P. (2005) History of Management and related applications. Kolkata: Dasgupta & Chatterjee.

King, H. (2005). HR Today. Wellington: HBT & Brooks Ltd.

Lamb, D. (2004). Cult to Culture: The Development of Civilization on the Strategic Strata. Delhi: National Book Trust.

Merriam, S. B., Caffarella, R. S., Baumgartner, L.M. (2007). Learning in adulthood a comprehensive guide. SanFrancisco, Ca: John Wiley & Sons.

Petty, G.C. (2008). The effect of self-directed work teams on work ethic. Performance Improvement Quarterly 21(2), 49-63.

Ross-Gordon, J. (2005). Adult Learners in the Classroom. New Directions for Student Services, 2005(38), 43-57.

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