Cognitive psychology is largely based on the analogy between the transformation of information into the computer device and the implementation of cognitive processes in humans.
Thus, cognitive psychology examines how people receive information about the world, as this information is provided by a human, as it is stored in the memory when it is converted into knowledge, which then affects our mind and behavior. These studies have led to an understanding of cognitive psychology as a direction, which is proof of the crucial role of knowledge in the behavior of the subject. It is now possible to place the issue on the organization of knowledge in your subject, including the ratio of verbal (verbal) and type of components in the process of remembering and thinking (G. Bauer, A. Paiva, R. Shepard).
Cognitive psychology has an impact on all sections of psychology, focusing on learning. Cognitive psychology has shown that effective learning is possible only when the new material is linked with existing knowledge and skills included in the existing cognitive structure.
An important condition for learning is the interest of students. Cognitive psychology reduces the complex world of humans to his simplistic models. Interesting in this respect is the view of one of the founders of cognitive psychology in the direction of G. Simon, according to which “a human as a behavioral system is as simple as ants. The apparent complexity of his unfolding in time behavior reflects primarily the complexity of the environment.”
According to R. Solso, modern cognitive psychology borrows the theories and practices of 10 major research areas: perception, pattern recognition, attention, memory, imagination, language functions, developmental psychology, thinking and problem solving, human intelligence, and artificial intelligence.
One of the models, which is typically used by cognitive psychologists, is called a model of processing information. We need to understand the limitations of cognitive models. Cognitive models are based on the model of the information used for the organization of existing literature, the stimulation of further research, coordinate research efforts, and facilitate communication among scientists.
Information processing is the basic approach in cognitive psychology. In this case, the cognitive system is seen as a system with input devices, storage, and output, given its capacity.
Cognitive psychology examines perception, attention, memory, knowledge, language, artificial intelligence. This all can be described as information gathering, storing and organizing information, and, finally, the use of information. To know the mechanisms for gathering information needed to understand the system of interpretation of sensory signals, learn to recognize patterns. Recognition of the pattern is a comparison of incentives that are in long-term storage (memory).
There are several models of achievement and selection of information in cognitive systems. When the information reached the cognitive system, it starts to transform into other forms. There is already connected memory, processing, and storage of information, the processes of memorizing and forgetting, as well as the transformation of information into knowledge, organization, and representation of knowledge, knowledge management, performance.
Cognitive psychology allows the investigation of the human cognitive system, following an external stimulus, to obtain information, process, retain or lose, and then manage the stored information, use, and communicate. It is obvious that people like and the computer handles the characters with those tasks, and it becomes possible to use a computer to simulate human activities.
Solso Robert L., Maclin Otto H., Maclin M. Kimberly. Cognitive Psychology (8th Edition). Allyn & Bacon; 8 edition, 2007
Eysenck M. . Cognitive Psychology: A Student’s Handbook 5th Edition. Psychology Press; 5 Student edition, 2005