Images of surroundings made with help of music by people are in open confrontation, and successive studying of problems on ethnography should lay emphasis on methods by means of which every man might represent surroundings in different ways dependently on various situations entailing various sets of people and interrelations. Interrelations promoted by institutions differ from their ones. A great number of organizations in Liverpool are worried about popular music being to date high, and representatives of the ‘community’ of Jews do not look worried to depict their community with help of methods that unite it in popular music. To reach a successive step and compare various social organizations in Liverpool and institutions representing them would make things clear. “Elsewhere I have written about the way in which the so-called Liverpool Sound is being described and discussed by various people living in the city. The discussions highlight the discourses of place and authenticity surrounding the notion of an identifiable Liverpool Sound. These discourses involve a series of oppositions, whereby Liverpool and its music are contrasted with London and Manchester, and distinctions are made with regard to music across the Merseyside region which revolve around issues such as class, religion and ethnicity. The music from Black and catholic districts is distinguished from that of white or protestant ones” (Cohen 131).
How social relationships, activities, and networks affect concepts of locality
The definition of the concept of locality
“Locality in lay terms is a place or region of sub-national spatial scale. Despite, or perhaps because of, considerable debate about the concept, there is no consensus concerning its technical meaning within human geography”. The source of the dispute consists of endeavors to explain the economic adjustment and its space pattern (Johnston 456). Producing teachings in and about the surroundings involves asking successive questions about the model of the concept of locality and common authenticity and the depicting of both. In smaller cities, conservatism and adherence to customs conduce to the ordinariness. In an atmosphere like that the relations established among the representatives of the community, locality and public interrelations within the locality lead to wistful feelings of the idea of ‘community’. “To examine social groupings and the communications between people requires awareness of the construction of discourse in order to avoid recourse to familiarity” (Bennett 115). Some people are under the influence of various nettings, including a blood relationship, tied up with chronicles of social and geographical mobility, and with tensed interrelations of likening and originality. Consequently, concepts of the locality of these people can reproduce transformations in vertical mobility, which may cause addressing and reflecting interrelations of power in all ranges of context: local, regional, state and global. “Concepts of territoriality, boundaries and relatedness are constructed through interactions between people. This focus highlights the ways in which such concepts shift and conflict, even amongst a relatively homogenous group, being influenced by factors such as genre and generation, as well as by ethnicity, class and relations of power involved”. “An ethnographic focus upon individuals and social relationships could reveal the processes through which concepts are socially and historically constructed, and thus the cultural specificity of beliefs, values, systems of classification, and concepts of personhood and sociality” (Cohen 132).
The heightened interest in reflexivity and the issue dialogical essence of the process of studying ethnography has moved the interest to the investigation of how knowledge gets changed into text. Therefore, the issue of being the originator of text has come under examination. Anthropologists have been worried about the methods of presenting the authority of the persons who gave them information: whether to state them as assistants, authors, colleagues, companions; and how to produce investigations with ethnographic written works with help of methods that are able to call up the essence of ethnography broken into pieces (Cohen 133-134).
The representation and use of ethnography
Within the research on popular music, such elements as gender, class, age, religion and ethnicity definitely have involvement, entailing feelings of similarity and diversity. Ethnography may not be considered as the perfect match to the assignment but it can make a sufficient contribution to policy production. Increasing knowledge of the sufficiency of accommodating the depicting and application of investigation on the issue of popular music to a series of diverse necessities and capabilities was a burning issue. The development of investigation on the issue of popular music and its influence would be significantly heightened in case it unites an ethnographic method that was concentrated on people and their social interrelations. Such notions highlight the sufficiency of accepting the integral outlook in the investigation of popular music and its function in the lives of people, their cultural environments, and societies. Operations and discourses must be checked across a series of interrelated contexts and localities (notwithstanding the role in music) in order to establish the perception of the notion derived from music in the network of a specific setting (Cohen 135).
An ethnographic approach to the research on popular music
An ethnographic method of the investigation of the issue of popular music, entailing direct observation of individuals, their social environment, cooperation and discourses, and taking part in their everyday activities, rites, repetitions and concerts, would help scientists undergo diverse interrelations, opinions, ideas, merits and aesthetics, or to observe known contexts from the other side of perception. Hence the subject of ethnography would heighten our experience of the minutiae of popular music actions and results. Only such kind of experience can help us to be verified in producing more common pronouncements about the notion of popular music (Cohen 135).
Direct observations of people’s life, settlements, interactions
“There is some evidence that an ethnographic approach to the study of popular music might be slowly developing. Recently more attention has been paid to the study of local popular music practices, and a few ethnographies of pop and rock have been, or are being, conducted in Scandinavia, France, Germany, and America, as well as in Britain” (Cohen 136). Taking into consideration the results of the study of popular music we can conclude that the influence of social relationships, activities, and networks on concepts of locality is enormous. This aspect may also have an influence on ways of thinking about Canadian music, as people living in diverse networks, having different habits, as “Individuals produce and consume music within specific social contexts (households, neighborhoods, etc.); at specific times or historical moments; within specific networks of social relationships (involving kin, peers, colleagues, etc.), relationships that have different dimensions (social, political, economic). People’s experience of music, the uses they have for it, and the meanings they construct around, or through it, are bound up with these specificities, and with the interconnections within them” (Cohen 135). Thus different social groups, representatives of which may belong to a certain age group, profession, ethnicity, have certain customs of producing and consuming music, certain common features of listening to music and comprehending it.
Bennett, Sarah, and John H. Butler. Locality, regeneration & divers[c]ities. Advances in art & urban futures. Journal for the Study of the Old Testamen. Intellect Books, 2000.
Cohen, Sara. Ethnography and Popular Music Studies. Popular Music, 1993.
Johnston, John Ronald. The dictionary of human geography. Wiley-Blackwell, 2000.