Oral Language Development and Reading Acquisition

Using SDAIE for English Language Learners

The classroom context observed in the Model Lesson 1 video comprised elementary-level ELL students of both genders. The SDAIE learning activities mainly involved teacher-centered instructions. The teacher largely remained in front of the classroom as she guided the students throughout the lesson. The sitting arrangement of the students allowed them to deliberate in pairs in response to the teacher’s instructions.

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The speech emergence language acquisition stage was evident in Model Lesson 1. This is because the students’ comprehension was exceptionally good. Learners were also capable of uttering simple sentences in responses to questions asked by the instructor. In Model Lesson 1, for example, Ms. Griego asked “what makes a triangle a triangle?” One student answered, “it has three sides and three corners.”

Cooperative learning and active learning were the main instructional strategies employed by the teacher in accommodating ELL students. There were numerous instances when students deliberated in pairs and raised their hands in response to the teacher’s directives. These instructional strategies enabled the ELL students to engage in their education through thinking, developing, and memorizing objects within the classroom setting (Gunning, 2010). This way, the teacher engaged the students in classroom materials and facilitated the delivery and consumption of information.

The identification of acquisition levels for the second language in the Model Lesson 1 video involved modeling, prompts, think-time, and wait-time strategies. Ms. Griego implemented these strategies using introductory sentences. She started the lesson by stating “boys and girls, today we are going to do a math lesson, and our math lesson is going to learn about shapes.” She then proceeded to ask questions on the things the students knew about geometry. She used this approach to gauge the prevalent characteristics of the language acquisition levels for this class. Generally, the process of identifying the language acquisition levels enabled the teacher to employ appropriate teaching strategies that aided the students in grasping the context of the lesson right from the beginning.

ELL students were accommodated using active learning and interpersonal learning strategies. Active learning bears the element of providing direct reactions of the students to the teacher’s explanations or demonstrations. For example, Ms. Griego elaborated the characteristics of shapes using her hands to demonstrate the differences between intersecting lines and parallel lines. In return, the students followed after her using their hands to demonstrate similar gestures.

The interpersonal learning strategy was evident in the occasions when the teacher asked questions and allowed students to deliberate in pairs. These strategies facilitated both inclusiveness and individualized approaches to students who demonstrate difficulty in learning and grasping the basic and complex concepts of English as a second language (Gunning, 2010).

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SDAIE enables students with diverse needs to enhance their understanding of the conceptual framework for achieving proficiency in the English language. It provides practical settings through which students comprehend newly introduced materials. In Model Lesson 1, for example, the difference between shapes was the conceptual basis that the teacher used to introduce new materials on geometry. It is from this perspective that learning strategies get to aid ELL students in the process of internalizing the basic knowledge of the English language.

English Language Learners: Reading and Writing

The classroom context observed in Model Lesson 2 comprised 6th-grade level ELL students of both genders. The lesson comprised 24 students and the teacher. The classroom had six tables neatly arranged in two rows. Each table was occupied by four students. The learning activities mainly involved learner-centered instructions and discussion strategies.

Intermediate fluency was the language acquisition stage evidenced in Model Lesson 2. This is because the students’ comprehension was excellent albeit with few errors. Learners could write, read, and answer questions in longer sentences. The students were able to answer specific questions with definite answers. For example, towards the end of the Model Lesson 2 video, one student representing one of the groups was able to ask a fairly long question in which she asked “when will the 60th anniversary of Japan start?” Another student answered “December 7th”.

The teacher used pairing, demonstrations, and group conversations in the strategy of accommodating ELL students. The students cooperatively conversed in groups to brainstorm questions asked by the instructor. Barell (2006) observed that cooperative instructional strategies “resolve questions, curiosities, doubts, and uncertainties about complex phenomena.” It is especially relevant for students because it gives them more comprehensive learning experiences.

The identification of acquisition levels of language involved outright participation of students in framing questions and answers. At the beginning of the class in the Model Lesson 2 video, Ms. Griego began by reminding the students that once they join high school they “would be expected to read harder material and answer questions.” This showed she was well aware of their language acquisition stage at the 6th-grade level. Such preliminary activities enable the teacher to express the context of the lesson to students before delving deeper into the actual subject matter of the lesson.

ELL students were accommodated using cooperative learning and learner-centered instruction strategies. A cooperative learning strategy manifested when the teacher got unison responses to the questions she directed to the students. The collaboration between the teacher and the students in the question-answer exchanges brought about attentiveness among students. All these strategies were implemented through directive tasks that allowed students to nurture their language skills. This facilitates inclusiveness because all students actively participate in the classroom activities, thereby grasping the underlying concepts of the English language (Gunning, 2010).

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Learning strategies for reading and writing evidently provided the ELL students in Model Lesson 2 with great learning experiences. Ms. Griego’s use of interactive teaching techniques such as illustrations, discussions, demonstrations, and role assignments enhanced the students’ understanding of the subject at hand. Learner-centered instruction strategy enhanced the students’ comprehension capabilities because it placed them in the spotlight throughout the class session. This allowed the students to engage actively in the learning processes through listening and interactive conversations with Ms. Griego.

WGU Guided Reflection Protocol Form

The reading and writing strategies that were mainly used by the ELL teacher, as observed in the videos, included visual representations, demonstrations, and root words. The approach was aimed at simplifying complex subjects. Visual representations are items such as charts, drawings, and pictures that illustrate particular concepts of a lesson. Demonstrations are the physical gestures or objects that are used to exemplify explanations while root words are the basic terms of a language that are used to build students’ basic vocabulary.

The teacher inquired about the student’s previous learning experiences with the aim of diagnosing their levels of second language acquisition. The teacher made this diagnosis using variations between specific prompts such as “who can…”, to more inquisitive prompts such as “what…” or “Who…”, and further to lengthier queries that required several sentences of responses (Gunning, 2010). These responses portrayed the students as having greater comprehension capabilities together with the abilities to pronounce simple sentences. This trend was characteristic of the speech emergence stage of language acquisition. Therefore, variations of the simple, moderate, and complex inquisitive prompts were the main strategies used to identify the students’ level of second language acquisition.

The learning experience of project-based learning is the additional strategy that can be used by the ELL teacher. The need for project-based learning emanates from its ability to encourage students to explore and analyze grammatical and vocabulary problems (Barrell, 2006). Project-based learning would particularly be of benefit to the intermediate fluency stage of second language acquisition. This is because it facilitates the isolation of appropriate instructional strategies and fitting them into the learning experiences required by students in this stage.

The effectiveness of the instruction approaches for ELL cannot be put into doubt. The design processes of the instruction approach actually take into consideration the different needs of ELL students. The initial stages of ELL provide strong foundations for second language acquisition by dwelling on the most basic concepts of the English language. The advanced stages of ELL provide even greater flexibility for students to perfect their English language capabilities.

My recommendations for appropriate strategies for promoting ELL literacy levels would be ADDIE and Dick and Carey models. The ADDIE acronym refers to an elaborate design process that begins with analysis, before going through design, development, implementation, and evaluation phases (Barrell, 2006). Dick and Carey’s model similarly systematizes the process of instruction design by taking to account the significance of all components of a successful learning process (Barrell, 2006). These two strategies would promote and motivate literary development by customizing learning experiences to the specific needs of students but also by providing a comprehensive framework for structuring instructional design for ELL.

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The justification for my recommendation would be based on the reality that ADDIE and Dick and Carey’s educational models form the foundation for structuring instructional design with the full knowledge of their implications to the design process. The two models take into account the specific needs of different students in different levels of learning. In terms of SDAIE, the models would enhance the employment of the appropriate lesson plans that prioritize the diverse needs of English language Learners. Indeed, the power of success in second language acquisition lies in the ability to employ effective instructional mechanisms that guide English language learners right from the basic concepts through to the complex concepts.

Professionally, the insights I gained on the influence of reading and writing on language acquisition is that it is a delicate process that requires the combination of creativity and innovation in teaching processes. This enables the teacher to achieve the same wavelength with ELL students. The teacher also gets to identify the specific areas of the subject where students demonstrate weaknesses. This way, the instructor increases the ability of students to grasp new knowledge in terms of grammar and vocabulary as they advance through the various stages of acquiring language (Gunning, 2010).


Barell, J. (2006). Problem-based learning: An inquiry approach. New York: Corwin Press.

Gunning, T. (2010). Creating literacy instruction for all students (7th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon/Pearson Education.

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