Memory and Types of Information

Introduction

The process of memorizing information touches upon the types of this very information. It can be pleasant or unpleasant. It can be with positive or negative coloring or consequences as well. All in all, people do not mind complex psychological mechanisms which provide more emphasis for recalling information. In other words, the role of the information and its initial background is significant for the point of memory. Thus, the research paper intends to work out the variables for making conclusions about the role of information character and its influence on the speed of memorizing.

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The importance of the research has both theoretical and practical concernment for an observer. In this respect the idea of having good memory is at a core. On the other hand, the role of how a man reflects on the information in its bilateral approach is under analysis of the paper. This fact drives to the general issue about the nature of psychology implied to general situations. The idea of so-called ability to adapt for different types of information, so that to keep it in mind is highlighted in the research. Hence, the urge of the main problem needs more analysis of how a human psyche is able to adapt for or evaluate pleasant and unpleasant information. The reliability and validity of this problem is rather high. The point is that living in the post-industrial society people should be aware of the information and its importance, as the man product of time.

The literature review provides a wide scope on the main variables impacting on the flow of memorizing process. The previous and current studies are taken into account for closer understanding of the achievements at the moment. Thus, the validity of the studies is pointed out as the proper to the issues outlined in literature. This means that all sources are closely related to the core issue of the research.

Pohl (2004) represents in his study the observation of the principles of cognition on the whole psychological state of human beings. The point of cognition is the main for this research. It is the prior field for stating the facts about the character of information and its convenience for memorizing. The author works out the theoretical observation of the memory and its principles. Thus, he underlines logically correct fact: “…we tend to remember the delightful and forget the dismal, and we also remember the praise better than condemnation” (Pohl, 2004, p. 260). The study points out the essence of Pollyanna principle in individuals. It is presupposed as the main bias for people in everyday life. The thing is that the reality is versatile in events of both positive and negative nature, and there is no assurance for everyone that pleasant moments are of constant nature. Furthermore, the bias of Pollyannaism which was first outlined by Matlin & Stang in 1978 is a spread phenomenon in the contemporary society. Looking at this fact Pohl (2004) designates two main aspects for the process of memorizing, namely: perception and language. These two factors make even the understanding of direct influence of emotions and other types of surrounding effects on the accumulation of information. It is logically to suppose that the quality of information matters. Main approach in the book is to evaluate the cognitive illusions which people usually do not mind. The psychological value of the study props up against clear points on perception and language in the fullness of everyday life of individuals. Hence, the author demonstrates fundamental features of how information influence on peoples’ consciousness. This surveillance represents the features of Pollyannaism. The points on perception and its significance are as such:

  1. People naturally seek for pleasant events or moment and try to avoid unpleasant features.
  2. Pleasant moments are in straightforward ratio to the quickness of recognition.
  3. Pleasant moments are judged larger in size (Pohl, 2004).

The author also relates his research to the problem of language and its attributive character. Pollyanna effect exposes its strength because people communicate good news; the English language has higher frequencies of pleasant words; unpleasant antonyms are mostly “unmarked”; constructing the speech individuals are likely to use more pleasant words (Pohl, 2004). The author also demonstrates that memorizing good or bad is a matter of personal attitude of people toward life. In other words, if a man is strong in self esteem and is less liable to depression than these people are apt to quickly recall pleasant information. On the other hand, people with low points of self esteem and optimistic attitude to life are likely to recall solely unpleasant moments.

The significance of mood-congruent memory concerns the points of self and consciousness of an individual. Dolcos & Cabeza (2002) insist on the assumption that emotional background at the moment of a definite event provides better recalling of information. In this respect authors provide a research on the emotionally induced memory and its features. The thing is that the attitudinal framework is of great significance for the extent of memorizing. It is the supporting mechanism for better associations. However, authors do not categorically judge about the character of information. It is the issue of receptivity among individuals. The main term in the study is event-related potential (ERP) effect. It constitutes the two-sided character of the influence, namely: the emotion effect and the subsequent memory effect (Dolcos & Cabeza, 2002). ERPs lead to better observation of how positive, negative and neutral factors impact on appropriate emotional states. The research showed that emotional memory leads to better formation of abilities to memorize information of different kind.

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The nature of emotion-association close relevance was of great concernment some few decades ago. Previous studies indicate that the emotional memory is closely related to the physiological processes in the organism. This is why the potential of memory is supported in this case psychologically and physically. This idea was encouraged in 1988 by Mark H. Anshel. His article discloses the real nature of the memory to react on the events, as the background for motor skills. The experiment in the article showed that people with elated and depressed moods can show better recalling under positive and negative feedback (Anshel, 1988). In this respect the author makes a conclusion about the significance of emotions. They provide physiological changes and, thus, play extra vital role in performing motor skills. Furthermore, the results of the study gave grounds for neuroscientists to work out new methodology of memorizing information. However, Anshel (1988) admits that both positive and negative impressions were temporary among the participants. Notwithstanding, the influence of emotional states is commented in the study with a mere extent of categorical reasoning: “Feelings of sorrow, guilt, joy, or anxiety result in poorly executed responses in front of spectators, and even lead to the individual’s withdrawal from further participation in physical activity or sport” (Anshel, 1988, p. 117).

Methodology

Restatement of thesis

Thus, the issue of relevance between memory and pleasant/unpleasant events is underlined inn the research paper. Thereupon, it showed that emotional-related potential of individuals is the main variable which influences lower or higher recalling of information. To say more, the effects of language and perception factors are highlighted in terms of the concept of self and cognitive mechanisms in an individual. The problem of positive, negative and neutral emotional states describes the place of emotional memory in the domain of complex psycho-biological processes.

Participants/Sampling

The methodology for the research provides rich in content information about the scope of variables and the sample according to which it was built. In this case the reliability of the studies shapes the time prospects in descending character. Every study reviewed is followed by another one but composed earlier. Such model of observation is described in the research in order to outline in which way the scientific thought shifts today compared to the previous times. This is why the participants in the research are representatives from the nearby schools. All of them are necessary to be of high grades. It is due to the ability of schoolchildren in this stage of education to violate the principle of efficient memorizing. The thing is that the material described in the paper is familiar for its use in everyday life. In accordance with the demographic characteristics that matter for the study, the audience of all students who want to improve knowledge in the field of mnemonic tools is appropriate for the research. The main characteristics of the study touch upon the historical and analytical methods for the sample of its performance. Thereupon, the role of the flow in psychological thought is highlighted as the paramount. As the materials in the study represent strategically vital information as of effectiveness of information collection, then this study is applicable for everyone who has such concerns.

Instruments/Measures

With the help of different instruments and methods the research showed its validity for contemporary surveillance. In this respect the analysis of previous studies and the way in which current ones drive correlates the use of proper instruments. First of all, the size of the sample includes dependent variables which are memory and emotions. In this case the expected effects considered that pleasant information solely provides quicker recalling. This approach is based on the logical evaluation of the character of the research. Furthermore, the analytical method is the most applicable for the research. Analyzed data will serve as the alleged guidelines for practical implementation of the study. The instruments provided in the research measure the variables by means of behavior rating scales and charts of comparative analysis of the studies reviewed. Hence, two ways are proposed to measure dependent variable, namely: testing and behavior rating.

Design/Procedure

Participants will be given different pictures so that to adequately characterize them. The pictures will be of positive, negative, and neutral character. In this point participants will answer questions about their feelings. The number of them will be not more than 25 for precise calculations and conclusions as of class, group or school on the whole. The examples of question will be of the following character: What are your impressions about this picture? Can you relate it to some events in the past? Will this picture stay in your mind for a long or a short period, as you think? The example of Pollyanna effect with one-sided approach to positive emotions will be opposed to bilateral observation of pleasant and unpleasant information used in other studies under review. The rating scale will be composed of ten points with three measurements of the results among participants: very unskilled, average, and very skilled (Pohl, 2004).

The research points out mixed nature of the methods used. To make the survey more varied and independent in results, different questions will be asked in different order for each participant. It will coordinate the validity of data. In fact, different stimuli will move the research toward more reliable results. The manipulation check provided in the research will show the reliance of the study toward rationale depicted in the reviewed literature. The provision of the straightforward research will be divided into two significant parts. In the first part same procedure and questions will be suggested to participants but individually to everyone. In the second part another line of questions will be asked for the general audience of participants. The reason of such selection is to compare the extent of results. In this respect additional research provides information about the trustworthiness of data.

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Class Presentation

Statement of Hypothesis

The research in the paper gave grounds to state that emotions promote a strong influence on the psychological processes in an individual. Due to the studies reviewed it is clear that most of people have a fallacy about the fact that positive emotions are quicker recalled. In fact, it is a matter of peoples’ liability toward flows of different emotions. This is why the researches of previous observers state that people with strong self esteem are more likely to memorize better moments of life. On the other hand, people looking unhappy and depressed in their life are apt to recall more negative events. Due to this statement provided by previous researchers the method outlined in the paper provides theoretical and practical background for proving this idea.

Summary of Proposed Method

The method of the research touches in most points on the sample provided by reviewed researchers. Thus, the scope of participants will consider representatives from nearby schools. They will be gathered in the number of not more than 25 persons. The researcher will give participants different pictures of positive, negative and neutral character. Afterwards the researcher will ask participants questions about their attitude toward pictures individually for each one. Then it will be done on a general base. Participants’ reflections on pleasant and unpleasant emotions provoked by pictures will be stated accordingly into two columns of positive and negative estimation. Then the behavioral rating scale will be pointed out regarding to personal observations of the researcher when asking questions individually. The results will be then placed in the charts and graphs, so that to determine the extent of recalling of pleasant and unpleasant information among participants. The results will definitely serve, as practical guideline for measuring the experimental procedure and dependent variables as well.

Reference

Anshel, M. H. (1988). The Effect of Mood and Pleasant Versus Unpleasant Information Feedback on Performing a Motor Skill. Journal of General Psychology 115.

Dolcos F. & Cabeza R. (2002, September). Event-related potentials of emotional memory: encoding pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral pictures. Cognitive Affection on Behavioral Neuroscience 2(3):252-63.

Pohl, R. (2004). Overview of the Pollyanna principle in Cognitive illusions: a handbook on fallacies and biases in thinking, judgment and memory. Los Angeles, CA: Psychology Press: 264-272.

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