Fiber to the Home – The Solution Path to Gigant-Symmetric Transmission

Project Introduction

This paper deals with Fiber To The Home (FTTH) technology and makes an effort to show how it can be perceived as the solution path to gigabit-symmetric transmission.

FTTH: It relates to fiber optic wires that reinstate the currently existent copper cable technology. FTTH has a upper hand over this copper cable technology due to it’s capability of carrying high-speed broadband services incorporating audio, video and data which is connected directly to the junction box of the home or the building.

Although multiplexing has made possible the transmission of digital signals over multiple channels using copper lines, fiber optic cable provides a much better alternative to transmit these signals and provides for quicker transfer rates and practically limitless bandwidth.

Current application of FTTH

The Internet exploits the framework of fiber optic cables competent enough to deliver implausible bandwidth.

Majority of the subscribers gain access to this network by means of copper cables with constrained capability.

FTTH technology narrows this gap.

Fiber optic cables are competent enough to transmit data at a rate beyond 2.5 gigabits per second (gbps).

At present, various rental schemes are available in the market with varying costs and speeds. Schemes which offer faster transmission are relatively expensive.

A higher priced FTTH service might offer data transmission rates greater than 100 mbps- approximately 66 times quicker than common DSL services.

Existing state of FTTH

FTTH uses various architectural frameworks for its implementation.

Point-to-Point Architecture: The providers are required to maintain an optical receiver for all customers individually on the field.

Passive Optical Network (PON): FTTH relies on a central transceiver and splitter to make room for up to 32 consumers at a time. Optical electric converters, or OEC, are employed to alter the signals to interface with copper cabling where necessary.

Research Aim

This project endeavors to enlighten the audience on how FTTH is useful in today’s communication arena and how it can be seen as the answer to the gigabit-symmetric transmission issue.

Demand for Internet access speeds has experienced a steep climb, in terms of the speeds requisite for bandwidth hungry applications.

A large number of P2P data applications have soaring bursts oriented traffic patterns and need high bit-rates just for a comparatively little time fractions. Thus, they are capable of sharing common frameworks and backbone networks.

On the contrary, streaming applications like video broadcast, video on demand and Voice over IP (VoIP) involve bandwidth engagement for the complete duration of the application execution.

Thus to operate these extremely demanding applications, use of FTTH becomes fundamental.

Further, an increasingly significant factor which needs to be comprehended is the ever more symmetric character of the traffic patterns.

Client-Server based applications like web browsing and streaming applications generate asymmetric network traffic flow.

But, on the other hand, Peer-to-peer file sharing, e-mail, video conferencing, VoIP, and others intrinsically generate symmetric traffic flows.

The FTTH technology, due its huge transmission competence, is able to address these issues and thus can be called the Solution Path to Gigabit-Symmetric Transmission.

Methodology and Approach

In this presentation we bring forth three variant approaches of FTTH implementation.

We then analyze each approach individually.

Lastly based upon our analysis we identify the pros and cons for all the approaches.

FTTH using Ethernet Switches

The rapid time and low cost constraints in relation to individual subscribers have lead to the popularity of FTTH architectures founded on Ethernet switching.

Ethernet transmission and switching are established possessions in the enterprise networking arena and provide for cost efficiency, developed product quality, and swift innovation cycles.

Switches positioned in the basements of various multi-dwelling units are unified by using Gigabit Ethernet.

This has the advantage of exceptional toughness in opposition to fiber cuts and effective cost efficiency.

But at the same time it is disadvantageous in terms of architecture scalability with the challenge presented by the bandwidth sharing concept.

FTTH using PON architecture

Passive Optical Network (PON) architectures for FTTH implementation are exemplified by passive optical splitters which allocate the fiber to each individual client by means of splitting ratios.

The PON FTTH framework characteristically supports the Ethernet protocol as well as ATM transmission system for its operations.

Often, a supplementary downstream wavelength is superimposed to dispense conventional analog and digital TV services to specific consumers eliminating the requirement of IP set-top boxes.

Advantages of this approach incorporate access fiber saving, port saving and analog video overlay.

However there are a number of issues concerning this technology like Bandwidth sharing, encryption, and high operational bit-rate which need to be addressed during deployment.


A gigabit-symmetric Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) PON is arguably more effective than the conventional WDM PON architecture.

It offers gigabit symmetry, i.e., a gigabit- or perhaps multi-gigabits-per-second in uplinks as well as downlinks, to satisfy the requirements of the customers for peer-to-peer applications along with HDTV broadcasting.

In OCDMA PON technology, diverse optical codes are allocated to the subscribers as the mark of uniqueness and a common transmission medium is used.

Both optical encoding as well as decoding is carried out in the optical domain, and therefore OCDMA can employ full asynchronous transmission mode, addressing time related overheads and without making use of any intricate electrical machinery.

Critical Appraisal

Use of fiber to provide connectivity to dwellings is a major investment which anticipates a life time of at least 30 to 40 years.

Use of various deployment techniques and architectures has been observed in the field of fiber based networks.

Although each deployment method for FTTH offers its advantages, the lingering risk of gaining short-term reserves in the fiber communications from PON FTTH implementation might have major impacts on the upcoming use of the costly fiber transmission without significant follow-on investments is a concerning issue.


FTTH may be exorbitant in various cases.

Deploying FTTH can be pricey and the monthly rates for broadband services subsequently can also be disconcerting.

However, outlays are expected to come down over a period of time with FTTH gaining popularity.

Due to difficulties in cost-effectiveness in reinstating prevailing copper cabling in some areas, FTTH is increasingly being deployed in recently built societies as a supplementary selling attribute.

FTTH is sure to gain more popularity in the coming times as it surely provides the answer to the ever demanding applications and offers a solution path to Gigabit Symmetric Transmission.

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