Exploration of the Earth and Space

The first significant person responsible for the Earth-centric view of Universe was Ptolemy along with Aristotle. The word “planet” comes from Greek planetes ‘wanderer’ (Dawson, 2008, p. 118). Planets were similar to spheres for ancient philosophers; they were wandering around the spheres of earth and moon. The ecliptic is the circular plane which can be adhered to the constellations which are situated beyond the sun during Earth’s movements in an orbit (Heifetz & Tirion, 2007). All planets orbit around the sun because of gravitation force, so their paths are close to the ecliptic also due to the gravity.

The force of gravity is acting on astronauts due to the mass of Earth and the influence of upper layers of atmosphere. The satellites are circling around the Earth due to the two major orbits around it. One is circular and another is elliptical (Poole, 2003). The center of such orbits is incorporated in Earth’s geocenter which provides huge influence by gravity and also such pathways are embodied into the so-called groundtrack (Poole, 2003).

The Ocean tides are created due to the gravitation pull of Moon in relation with the Sun. When Moon is overhead, then comes a tide; at this time Oceans on the other side of the Earth are still due to the “absorption” of Moon’s gravity by Earth’s thickness (Mulcrone, McGraw-Hill, 2001). If there were no Moon tides, they would be attracted by the Sun. If the Moon were closer to Earth, then the tides would be higher and warmer. In fact, Earth crust would melt also (Ward, Donald Brownlee, 2000).

The celestial sphere is the most useful way of how to explain the Universe (Imamura, 1995). Planets and all celestial bodies are considered to have a circular form similar to sphere. From the observational perspective stars can be concerned to have imaginary spheres, as the Sun and many planets have, when looking at them with the naked eye. It is so due to more or less range of gravitation force which celestial bodies have, and the creation of surface tension of their atmospheres, as a result. The ecliptic is associated classically with 12 constellations which are encountered in Zodiac signs. A circumpolar star is a star which can be viewed from any latitude of Earth every night due to the relevance to the celestial poles (Poole, 2003). North Star is seen in every period of a day and a year and is concerned to be the center of the Universe.

Brightness of a star determines the age and the heat of it and it is not necessary to think that it gives off more light. Star Polaris is located in the end of the Little Dipper handle. This Star cannot be seen in the Southern Hemisphere because Earth circles around its axis from West to East.

Speed, Distance and Time are related due to the possibility to find out the scale of any within three due to other two. Speed of light equals 186000 miles a second; the distance from Earth to the Sun is 93 million miles; it will take 500 seconds or 8 minutes and 20 seconds for sunlight to reach the Earth (Costello, 2009).

According to the scientific Method the discussion over the model of the Universe came to the rational background due to the sequence of experiments and facts representation by scientists to support the hypothesis. Though, speculation differs from the hypothesis due to making it genuine truth without direct evidences to prove such ideas.


  1. Costello, R. (2009). Time and the speed of light.
  2. Dawson, J. W. (2008). The Origin of the World According to Revelation and Science New York: READ BOOKS.
  3. Heifetz, M. D., and Tirion, W. (2007). A Walk Through the Southern Sky: A Guide to Stars and Constellations and Their Legends. Ed. 2. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  4. Imamura, J. (1995). Celestial Sphere.
  5. Mulcrone, P., and McGraw-Hill. (2001). McGraw-Hill’s GED: the most complete and reliable study program for the GED tests. MCGRAW HILL’S GED. New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
  6. Poole, I. (2003). Newnes guide to radio and communications technology. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
  7. Ward, P. D., and Brownlee, D. (2000). Rare earth: why complex life is uncommon in the universe. Copernicus Series. Berlin: Springer.
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