Emerging Infectious Disease Preparedness and Response


Lack of massively developed immunity, a more extended incubation period, and an asymptomatic course of the disease are the main factors in the spread of COVID-19 on a global scale. COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has transmitted around the world and reached a global level. Even the most seasoned international health experts could not have predicted that a virus spreading at this rate would lead to the most significant health crisis in a century. The pandemic caught the world community by surprise, and its further development remains unpredictable.

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that poses severe risks to the world economy. The purpose of the study is to examine the pandemic’s impact and analyze the national response comparing various factors and areas of the virus outbreak. The research might help in providing the exchange of information in real-time on research and development of means to combat the pandemic. The launch of joint research projects and the sharing of funds for the rapid growth, production, and distribution of treatments and vaccines might be useful. Every effort should be made to increase the availability of medical equipment where it is needed most.

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The study evolves the various factors and outcomes of COVID-19 that occurred in multiple areas and states. For instance, the research areas are Australia and European Union (Coyne & Jennings, 2020; Klonowska & Bindt, 2020). The study also investigates the American COVID-19 response, Pakistan, NATO states, and the whole planet (Gottlieb et al., 2020; Suleri, 2020; Tardy, 2020; Van de Pas, 2020). It explores the question of digital contact tracing for the pandemic response and the correlation between terrorism and coronavirus disease (Kahn et al., 2020; Ackerman & Peterson, 2020). The topic of the research addresses the global healthcare policy, particularly the analysis of the extent of preparedness for infectious pandemic and its response. In order to find appropriate resources on this issue, the following methodology was used: searching for resources by comprehensive, general, and main headings and a cited reference method. Moreover, websites, online platforms, and databases such as National University Smart Search, JSTOR, ProQuest, and Google Scholar were drawn into the research. Outside help was not involved; the study was completed independently.

National University Smart Search database was chosen for conducting a comprehensive search. Moreover, in order to exclude unnecessary results, the publication data filter was set as 2020 and following keywords were used: ‘coronavirus’, ‘coronavirus & health care’, ‘coronavirus response’, ‘coronavirus preparedness’, ‘coronavirus policy’, ‘healthcare policy’, ‘healthcare preparedness’, ‘healthcare response’, ‘infectious disease’, ‘infectious disease preparedness’, ‘infectious disease response’, ‘pandemic’, ‘coronavirus pandemic’, ‘coronavirus pandemic healthcare’, ‘coronavirus pandemic & healthcare policy’, ‘global health’, ‘COVID-19’, ‘COVID-19 pandemic’, ‘COVID-19 preparedness’, ‘COVID-19 healthcare’, ‘healthcare policy 2020’, ‘pandemic 2020’, ‘global healthcare’.

JSTOR was used to realize a general search and choose the Boolean term ‘AND’ and publication data set as 2020. The search was performed by the following keyword: ‘coronavirus pandemic,’ ‘healthcare policy,’ and ‘infectious disease preparedness.’ A main heading search was conducted in ProQuest, using the Boolean terms ‘AND’ and ‘OR’. The following keywords were used in the research: ‘coronavirus pandemic’ OR ‘infectious disease’ AND ‘healthcare policy’ OR ‘infectious disease preparedness’ OR ‘infectious disease response’ OR ‘coronavirus preparedness’ OR ‘coronavirus response.’ A cited reference search was performed in Google Scholar, using the articles by Stock (2020) and Hunter et al. (2020), which reveal the question of economic statistics and focuses on the phenomena “flattening the curve”. The publication data filter was set as 2020.

Inclusion Criteria

The inclusion criteria for each resource implied the matching to the research topic or covering the relative details. In addition, the requirements included the following themes: coronavirus pandemic, healthcare policy in 2020, global health 2020, emerging infectious disease preparedness, and emerging infectious disease response. The data range of articles and books included only 2020 year, as the research problem regards the current situation and the supposed scenario. The resources are presented by scholarly articles, peer-viewed journal articles, online journal articles, web pages, and books.

Exclusion Criteria

Exclusion criteria contain a mismatch of the research topic and not covering the relevant details: coronavirus economic impact, crisis, world economic crisis, respiratory illnesses, the adaptation of coronavirus, coronavirus preventative practices, political issues of coronavirus pandemic, coronavirus among pets. Resources dated before 2020 were excluded too, as they do not cover the topic of the research.

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Qualitative Analysis

The qualitative method is used to explore the thoughts, ideas, or experiences of people through case studies and literature reviews. A case study is a detailed study of an event, organization, person, or group. In qualitative research, the analysis is based on images, language, and observations, usually in the form of textual analysis. The main difference between qualitative and quantitative methods is that in the first case, data are collected from a relatively small group of respondents and are not analyzed using statistics. Due to quantitative methods, a large group of people is investigated, and the data is further analyzed using statistical purposes.

The area of ​​qualitative research can be called independent. It has a general methodological basis: empirical, the object of interest is concrete people, investigates the specificity of the relationship between the individual and the social in specific life situations. With regard to COVID-19, the study contains the differences in countries’ policies dedicated to preventing the further spread of the disease. Following the announcement of a novel coronavirus – COVID-19 pandemic, countries worldwide have begun to take various steps to counter the spread of the dangerous illness. The health care systems of the countries hardest hit by the pandemic are facing a significant challenge. There was a shortage of artificial lung ventilation devices, medical masks, protective overalls, and medicines.

Qualitative research looks at particular individuals in specific situations. Such aspects as everyday interaction of people are considered, which is investigated from the point of view of social status and role of cultural discourse, including norms, patterns of behavior, cultural symbols. Qualitative research is aimed at obtaining deep consumer motivation and data of the study. Qualitative methods involve collecting data in free form; they do not emphasize statistical measurements; they help understand and analyze empirical data, which are the source of the hypotheses formation. The purpose of qualitative research methods is to obtain exploratory data, not a quantitative distribution of opinions. Qualitative methods allow us to understand the essence of the problem, formulate tasks, and conceptualize subsequent quantitative research.

Analysis Plan

The work will consist of an introduction, which contains a description of the object and subject, emphasizing the relevance of the topic. Then, the analysis of literary sources, the goal is to study the existing hypotheses, scientific theories, solutions, developments. As a rule, the introductory part is devoted to considering the concepts and statements existing today concerning the actual problem or issue.

The purpose of the study involves defining tasks – steps leading to the achievement of the goal. In general terms, the research tasks can include studying the state of the issue of COVID-19, identifying the features of the research topic, clarifying the definition of concepts, systematizing, and analyzing the data obtained, identifying conditions that ensure an effective solution to the problem. Each subsequent task builds on the results of the previous one. Body paragraphs of the research present a theoretical basis on which the author conducts practical research and experiments. The conclusion introduces the findings to the audience. A brief description of the entire study is given – whether the tasks have been completed, whether the hypothesis is confirmed or refuted. Prospects for further research of the problem might also be noted.

Threats to Validity and Ethical Concerns

The disadvantages of qualitative research methods are the high probability of subjectivity in the analysis, the complexity of the study of the data obtained. Quantitative measurements are accurate, whereas qualitative ones have subjective errors. However, subtle guesswork seems to be more valuable than careful research into an irrelevant phenomenon. The disadvantages of qualitative research methods are the displacement of the initial research tasks due to the changing nature of the context and the formulation of conclusions that carry the researcher’s personality. Besides, there is a possibility of investigating the causal relationship between the phenomena under study, the problematic explanation of the differences between the quality and amount of information received from different respondents, and the formulation of differing, inconsistent conclusions based on this information. A researcher’s high level of professionalism is necessary as a condition for obtaining the objective and essential information. A crucial first step towards objectivity is to assess the persuasiveness of arguments based on the merits of objective evidence.

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References

Ackerman, G., & Peterson, H. (2020). Terrorism and COVID-19: Actual and potential impacts. Perspectives on Terrorism, 14(3), 59-73. Web.

Coyne, J., & Jennings, P. (Eds.). (2020). After COVID-19: Australia and the world rebuild. Australian Strategic Policy Institute. Web.

Gottlieb, S., Rivers, C., McClellan, M., Silvis, L., & Watson, C. (2020). National coronavirus response: A road map to reopening. American Enterprise Institute.

Hunter, K., Kendall, D., & Horwitz, G. (2020). CoronaCare for everyone: A comprehensive plan to rescue health care. Third way.

Kahn, J., Cicero, A., Watson, C., Watson, M., Hosangadi, D., Toner, E., Trotochaud, M. & Johns Hopkins Project on Ethics and Governance of Digital Contact Tracing Technologies. (2020). Digital contact tracing for pandemic response: Ethics and governance guidance. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Klonowska, K., & Bindt, P. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic: two waves of technological responses in European Union. Hague Centre for Strategic Studies. Web.

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Stock, J. H. (2020). Data gaps and the policy response to the novel coronavirus (Working Paper No. 26902). The National Bureau of Economic Research. Web.

Suleri, A. (2020). Spread of COVID -19: What Pakistan needs to do to tackle this “Black Swan Event”. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. Web.

Tardy, T. (2020). COVID-19: NATO in the age of pandemics. NATO Defense College. Web.

Van de Pas, R. (2020). Globalization paradox and the coronavirus pandemic. Clingendael Institute. Web.

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