The rapid change in technology that is taking effect is very critical to the learning environment. In essence, the existing knowledge is undergoing rapid obsolescence and on the other hand, population is increasing at a very fast rate such that education systems available are facing a great challenge. This calls for better systems without increasing the cost drastically. The possible solution to this is developing a system of education particularly designed to use new technology. Traditionally, distance learning was only set for older people who could have missed college education. In this regard, e-learning is shaking up education as it is offering solution to distance, time, and education gap and cost problems.
This concept draws from the advent of information and communication technology where student and teachers alike can be able to carry out revisions, transform the traditional learning model into new design that use, and incorporate Technology. Online learning, otherwise referred to as e-learning, is very critical, as it has had a lot of influence on socio-economic and cultural progress in the world today. However, critics still argue that the technology may not stand the test of time. Due to this concern, e-learning needs more study to generate more execution strategies that would cover the aspects that need recognition and comprehension.
A lot of schools have incorporated ICT in their teaching process. This is in line with the development of this technology and the emergence of needs that can be effectively addressed using the technology. Some of the needs, as alluded earlier, are for example the necessity to continue learning although one is unable to attend the classes physically. Distant learning comes in to solve this problem, and it is buttressed by ICT where students can engage with teachers on-line.
Saudi Arabia is such one country that has embraced ICT especially in her institutions of higher learning. However, this is a fairly recent phenomenon in this country, and extensive research needs to be done on it. It is against this backdrop that the researcher embarked on a study of the opinions and attitudes of students in Saudi Arabia’s institutions of higher learning as far as information technology is concerned.
There essentially three types of process that learning adopts and have been explained to explain the intrinsic learning processes whereby learners construct knowledge.
- Constructivism: this theory is very important as it drives the student and the educators on how they conduct the process of learning. This encourages personalized learning by collaborative involvement where critical thinking is enhanced for problems solving. The instructor is usually a facilitator to guide, offer corrections and foster better understanding and providing social exposure. The student takes active role to remain involved by actively participating (Allen, 2005, p. 246).
- Cognitive: These theories recognize learning as the process of attaining the cognitive structure that people process and store knowledge. They illustrate how students make out, process and infer, store and recover learned information (Elango, et al 2008, p. 32). In this way, instructors can organize studies based on the learner’s understanding approach. The involvement of the learner in the process is very critical to the way information will be presented (Allen, 2005, p. 246). This actually assists the instructors in designing it in a way that learners are able to relate to. Learning by this approach can be summed up to be active, objective and constructive and depends on the mental capacity of the learner.
- Behaviorism: this simply presents the process of learning as a behavior changing progress that is discernible. Therefore, behaviorists presume that since human behavior is observable, it can be related to other occurrences that are observable. The learning approach under this concentrates on the response (behavior change) that is evoked by a certain stimulus (impact) (Govindasamy, 2002, p. 289). Conditioning is very elemental in this approach and learning takes place following a positive reinforcement that result in abandoning the old habits as being negative and picking up new ones (Allen, 2005, p. 246). The activities to be involved during the process o learning are contingencies that reinforcement achieves and the learner draws knowledge.
The theories that have been presented are very useful in explaining the process through which students attain functional knowledge. However, there is no single approach that can fully describe all the learning types (Elango, et al 2008, p. 32).
Statement of the Problem
The increasing use of technology has greatly transformed education system in Saudi Arabia to E-learning and use of Information technology for studies in higher education (Al-Khalifa, 2008, p. 390). Though e-learning presents a great opportunity for learning and development, it is pertinent to note that there are still very big discrepancies in the system. Many universities have been able to achieve significant benefit by adopting online systems while others still apply great effort to realize accomplishment of the minimal education quality (Almohaisen, 2007, para 3).
The above problems can be attributed to the fact that as earlier stated, ICT in higher learning is a fairly new phenomenon in this country (Almohaisen, 2007, para. 3). As such, several hurdles are likely to be encountered during the teething stages. The attitudes that are held by the various stakeholders in the sector-teachers, students, and parents-are seminal in informing the direction that the development will take. It is from this perspective that the researcher developed this study.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the present research is to examine the attitudes and opinions of students towards the use of ICT in higher education in Saudi Arabia. The research will explore the state of e-learning in Saudi Arabia’s universities (Al-Khalifa, 2008, p. 390). This will present a general impression of the learning processes, systems and theories. The researcher will be interested in analyzing the attitudes that are held by the students towards this development. The opinion of the faculties and other stakeholders such as teachers and administration will be sought in order to contextualize those of the students. This is in addition to the examination of the factors that lead to the attitudes, the differences in attitudes held between different students among other issues. Below is a list of the major purposes of this research:
- An examination of students’ attitudes and opinions regarding ICT
- Assess the factors that cause differences in attitudes and opinions held by students towards e-learning and ICT in their (Shabha, 2000, p. 236)
- An examination of the opinions and attitudes held by faculties towards e-learning (Barnard, 2006, p. 223)
- An examination of the relationship between students’ attitudes and level of ICT integration in Saudi Arabian institutions of higher learning (Al-Khalifa, 2008, p. 394)
- Challenges faced by students and faculty members in the use of ICT in higher learning in Saudi Arabia
Review of the Literature
Though Saudi Arabia is a fresh starter in online education, the numbers of students enrolling in the e-learning is increasing drastically. Whereas the adoption of the online courses is increasing in many universities (this is a positive sign since many potential students will be reached), e-learners need to be able to vividly distinguish and choose the best quality education resources (Koohang, 2004, 589). There is increasing evidence based on research that the dawn of the internet technology has had a very big impact on higher education internationally (Almegren et al, 2007, p. 194).
As a basis for identification of the best e-learning strategies, it is very important that the paper explore the state of learning the Saudi Arabian universities. To get a general scope of the processes, methods applied and the theories that relate to this are important for decision making. E-Learning implementation advancement since its inception and the subsequent emerging trends now that the technology is being adopted widely is very crucial and is important for policy making as well (Almohaisen, 2007, para 3).
Concept of Learning Process
Education is becoming a very basic need in the current knowledgeable society and it results in new ideologies that help develop people and improve living standards (Meredith & Newton, 2003, p. 45). Therefore, the process of learning itself is experiencing a very fast development adopting new teaching strategies altogether. These changes affect the society, which in turn requires the students to be autonomous (Abouchedid & Eid, 2004, p. 18). Many online approaches have been suggested in the past, however many people have a propensity to concur that e-learning entailed whatever the students are needed to do in order to attain their learning objectives (Schulz-Zander, et al 2002, p. 438). Hence e-learning appears to be emerging from the changes that the students perceive out of the real world (like time constraints or distance) and its relationship with the problem under discussion – need for education. E-Learning is hence addressing the way people gain knowledge and skills and the manner in which the existing ones are modified to offer solutions to the existing and emerging problems (Abouchedid & Eid, 2004, p. 18).
Learning is not just some kind of incomprehensible transfer of knowledge from one individual to the next; rather it is a very active undertaking that is used by students to process helpful information for use. Furthermore it is apparent that the knowledge that learners have, impact substantially on the process of learning and the styles of learning that are available (Imam, 2009, para 2). Accordingly, the styles of learning have to be incorporated or differentiated for convenience. In this way, the numerous learning styles will greatly enhance the process of knowledge transfer.
Learning Styles for Learners
Students learn, for instance listening, seeing and experiencing new things first hand through many ways. However, for many students, one of these means usually stands out (Schulz-Zander, et al 2002, p. 438). It is very important that one is able to realize the learning style that is best suited for him/her. According to research, students can actually learn and retain the information they learn for longer if they change the way they approach learning and adapt the styles that suits them best (Abouchedid & Eid, 2004, p. 21). For instance, visual learner can sometimes strain when reading an essay because they cannot be able to remember the facts in the essay when asked to reproduce what they read. Nonetheless, if the visual learner makes use of visual aids when carrying out studies, like using a very colorful outline of a test material (Meredith & Newton, 2003, p. 45), the students are likely to retain a lot of information (Simpson, 2001, p. 3). Visual aids in this case improve the capacity to recall information more comprehensively. Some students usually recall best things they saw, others what they heard and others what they experienced physically (Chou & Liu, 2005, p. 65). Basic types of learning styles include:
- Visual Learners: these students learn well by observing, this means they would prefer to use visual objects like colorings, pictures, maps, photographs and other images for organization of their information and for communicating with others (Simpson, 2001, p. 3). These students effortlessly visualize objects, strategies and the results in the mind. They are also very good in terms of the spatial sense, which gives them a very extraordinary sense of direction, can easily find the way around new places and maps, and can hardly ever get lost (Abouchedid & Eid, 2004, p. 21). Such students like doing things like drawing, doodling and scribbling particularly with use of color. Such learners can be very good in photography, design, navigation, planning and filming and video.
- Auditory learners: These students are very good in listening skills and learnt best when they hear things. Such kind of students can have a tough time trying to understand a passage they are reading but can clearly understand when they listen to a passage being read (Simpson, 2001, p. 3). Such student can grasp a lot of information during a lecture in the class.
An auditory learner can benefit great deal when using computers that are equipped with speech recognition tools. Such students may have the capacity to ascertain whether a person is giving the true meaning when they listen to him/her speaking especially concentrating on the tone of the voice (Taiwei, 2006, p. 27). When they memorize a phone number, and auditory learner can in most case repeats it loud so that he/she gets the sound and then be able to remember it just the way it sounded. Such students learn best when they provided with oral instructions for taking assignments. Students can be provides with videos to complement the written content (Simpson, 2001, p. 3). The student can then be allowed more time to readout aloud the content or discuss through the instructions or questions they may be having. Breaks should be there for silent reading and recognize that the students with strong auditory learning style take longer in reading a passage.
Characteristics of such students are; reading slowly, enjoys music, recalls names, and reads loudly, sensitive to sound effects, good in grammar and languages and not afraid to speak. Recorded lectures can be very favorable, they can absorb a lot from watching movies, they participate well in discussion groups, can tape notes and use audio tapes and CDs efficiently rather than the written notes (Taiwei, 2006, p. 27). They can perform well in oral examination.
- Kinesthetic Learners: these types of students classically learn best by doing the things physically. Such students are very good in physical activities like dances and other sporting activities. They take pleasure in learning via hand on experiences. They characteristically like ‘how – to’ guides and adventurous narrations. They can pace while talking on the phone or take breaks during a study lesson to stretch move about to refresh (Taiwei, 2006, p. 27). Some kinesthetic learners appear to be fidgeting and find it very hard to sit for longer hours in a class.
The kinesthetic learners gain knowledge best by doing things, this means that they enjoy manipulation of items, simulation and playing roles and other means that are physically involving during the process of learning. Experimenting gives them pleasure and first hand experience is their best method of learning where they easily retain information they obtain this way. Using varied activities also gives them great opportunities to learn.
Teaching Styles for Instructors
Educators and designers of the curriculum templates online are expected to have clear understanding of such issues. Three paradigm approaches have been identified by Henderson in his study of the learning environment (Meredith & Newton, 2003, p. 45).
- The Perspective Paradigm (Inclusive): this type of approach is based on the cultural, social, and historical perceptions of the diverse minority learning individuals, but it does not offer any challenge to the dominant culture of learning. It is hence simply superficial in its impact (Govindasamy, 2002, p. 289).
- The Inverted Curriculum Paradigm: this model makes an effort to take in a learning element from the minority or the different learning group point of view. Nonetheless, it falls short of offering the type of diversity individuals with educationally convincing experience, as it does not take them into the majority culture.
- The Culturally Uni-Dimensional Paradigm: this model does not include the existence of cultural diversity among the learning individuals. It assumes that all educational experiences are the same for minority diverse learning groups as they are for the majority learning individuals (Govindasamy, 2002, p. 289).
From the above categories, certain principles were derived by Henderson and later they led to designing a multiple cultural paradigm, which makes use of an eclectic approach and allows variability and flexible learning design (Schulz-Zander, et al 2002, p. 438). This means that courses for students are designed to enable them to learn through their interactions with the resources. This is together with engagement in activities that are specifically oriented to meet these objectives. These activities include, but are not limited to; be a reflection of the multiple and diverse cultural realities of majority and minority communities; comprise multiple cultural means of getting to know, to interact, to learn and teach and finally in promoting acceptance and equity of a variety of learning outcomes (Govindasamy, 2002, p. 289).
There is significant development that has been experienced in the new model of learning that utilizes internet tools and information technology. Despite the increased literature comparisons, perceptions and assessments, and pedagogical elements, there are no varied e-learning tactics that have been adopted (Elango, et al 2008, p. 32).
- The Definition: there are several definitions that have been presented to refer to e-learning. Some experts define it as a way of delivering instructions through electronic media like audio and video, internet, interactive television, satellite and compact disks (Barnard, 2006, p. 223). Others describe it as learning that is facilitated through the internet and delivered to the learner through computer for the connectivity between the students and the information. Finally, simpler definition is that e-learning is distant learning that is presented via internet and other information technology instruments. We will consider a general representation and describe e-learning as a process of passing knowledge by use of information and digital technologies is supporting the process of teaching (Barnard, 2006, p. 223). Several technologies are incorporated in the latter definition.
- E-Learning Technologies: several technologies have been implemented to assist in the delivery of education online or in e-learning model.
CD-ROM: this medium has been very useful in delivering learning material to learners involved in distance learning. This medium was official by early 1990’s. The medium is able to support learning in text or through other multi-media systems (Armatas et al, 2005, p. 86). Using CD-Rom Media supports learning that is self-determining where the students acquires the intended knowledge by executing unique education programs on the computer regardless of their internet connectivity (Al-Kethery, 2006, p. 23). This model is common in computer based approaches that usually come in form of topic tutorials and special software and also tools for training other languages.
Learning Management System: this is entirely new approach that used IT and other procedures that add directly or indirectly to the process of learning and managing the whole process itself. They are basically designed to offer online learning for instructors and learners alike as well as the administrators. KEWL 2005 is an example of LMS (Mirza, 2007, p. 126).
Content management approaches (CM system) are designed to enhance mutual construction of content, management, and controlling document publications in a central setting. The systems are in most cases web-based and combine management and administrative functionalities of LMA and CMS to write, consent to, print and manage the education content (Mirza, 2007, p. 127). Micro-media designer is an example.
Multimedia community: this approach allows students to contribute to the learning process. This tool is a combination of a set of technologies that embrace features of all the conventional learning models and basic computer training.
Virtual world: This is mimicry of the real world situation in classrooms and is very fashionable and capable of transforming learning into a whole mew and better dimension (Mirza, 2007, p. 128). Exercises and fun are incorporated. Examples include DVTS-based lab on Gigabit network, automatic teletab and web-based activities on railroad digital stage.
E-Learning Transforming Higher Education
Structural changes that are being witnessed in higher learning are all attributed to advancement in technology (Chou & Liu, 2005, p. 65). E-learning has created a flexible approach for students who would otherwise have missed the chance to learn due to obstacles and other limiting factors like job commitments, distance, and lack of time, inadequate monetary resources and family issues (Alharbi, 2002, p. 23). Technology has in fact improved knowledge storage means, techniques of learning and has been a very major catalyst to fighting the barriers to education like inflexible structure. As a consequence many institution of higher learning are adopting e-learning.
The traditional teaching techniques have changed comprehensively (Al-Kethery, 2006, p. 23). The transformations in education are due to ICT opportunities, mutual research, demand for functional skills and knowledge and seal to enter knowledge-based economies.
Research Questions and Hypotheses
The proposed research questions will revolve around the attitudes and opinions that are held by students and members of faculty as far as e-learning and integration of ICT in institutions of higher learning in Saudi Arabia is concerned. Several questions will be addressed in detail. However, the following are major research questions for this study. They include:
- What are the attitudes and opinions held by students towards the use of e-learning and incorporation of ICT in higher education in Saudi Arabia?
- What differences exist between the opinions and attitudes held by different students regarding ICT and e-learning in Saudi Arabia?
- What are the factors leading to the differences observed in (2) above?
- What are the opinions and attitudes held by faculty members regarding the use of ICT in higher education in Saudi Arabia?
- What is the relationship between the students’ attitudes and opinions towards ICT in Saudi Arabian institution’s of higher learning and the integration of ICT in the country’s education system?
- What are the problems and challenges faced by students and faculty members in the use of ICT in higher education in Saudi Arabia?
Statement of Hypothesis
The advent of information technology and the subsequent adoption of online learning have had a positive impact on higher education in Saudi Arabia. The study presupposes that the quality of education obtained from e-learning is much better than that obtained from the conventional classroom environment. In this 21st century, it is also logical to hypothesize that university students in Saudi Arabia have adequate skills in computer and internet use that are required for effective e-learning (Almegren et al, 2007, p. 194). From this discourse, the statement of hypothesis as stated below will guide the study:
There is a relationship between the attitudes and opinions held by students towards e-learning and ICT integration in institutions of higher learning in Saudi Arabia and the level of ICT integration in these institutions
Design Methods and Procedures
- Target Population: The target population for this study is the students in Saudi Arabian universities. These are students drawn from both the undergraduate and graduate programs.
- Sample Population: Given the sheer size of the target population in most studies, it becomes impossible to comprehensively study it in a single study. To circumvent this, researchers comes up with a sample population, which is a small section of the whole population. This sample population reflects all the attributes of the target population, and as such, it is easy and practical to generalize the findings of the sample population to the target population.
The sample population for this study is graduate and undergraduate students in ten Saudi Arabian universities.
400 students were selected to participate in this study (N=400). These were drawn from each of the ten universities selected. The universities selected are as listed below:
- University one
- University two
- University three
- University four
- University five
- University six
- University seven
- University eight
- University nine
- University ten
The researcher selected forty students from each of these universities. The forty were composed of equal numbers of males and females, and equal numbers of undergraduate and graduate students.
To come up with the 400 students who were the participants for this study, the researcher made use of stratified sampling procedure. To start with, the researcher classified all the universities in Saudi Arabia into two clusters. These consisted of those that incorporate information technology into their teaching process and those that did not. Out of these two strata, the researcher selected those universities that make use of different features of information technology in their teaching process.
The students from the ten universities selected were clustered into undergraduates and graduates. To ensure consistency and accuracy of the results, the researcher selected an equal number of undergraduate and graduate students. In addition to undergraduate and graduate strata, there were other clusters that the researcher came up with as far as the students were concerned. These included age, gender, socio-economic background, and mode of learning (distant learning versus classroom learning).
As earlier indicated, the ten universities each produced forty students, distributed equally between males and females and graduates and undergraduates. Other characteristics of the sample are as indicated below:
|20 and below||52|
|46 and above||30|
It is pertinent to note now that the classification of respondents as far as their ages were concerned was not done based on their parent institution.
Mode of Learning
The researcher classified the respondents into those that were in distant learning and those that were involved in classroom learning. The distant learners were 178 (d=178). Out of these, 98 are graduate students while 80 were undergraduate. On the other hand, the students involved in classroom learning were 222 (c=222). Out of the 222, 130 were undergraduate students while 92 were graduate.
Instrumentation (Tools for Data Collection)
The researcher proposes to use a questionnaire to collect the data. The questionnaire will be structured in such a way that the research questions identified earlier will be addressed. A sample of the questionnaire used can be found in the appendix section of this paper. The researcher opted for a questionnaire for various reasons. For starters, it is a very effective tool for capturing quantitative data, which was needed. A questionnaire is also handy given that the resources allocated for this study are humble. The period for the study is short, and the questionnaire is effective for it does not require a lot of time. Other resources that are limited include finances, and a questionnaire comes in handy for it does not call for wider distribution of financial resources.
Methods for Data Collection
The data will be collected by administering the questionnaire to the respondents. The respondents are supposed to complete the questionnaire on their own. This is to ensure that their privacy is not breached and that confidentiality is maintained.
To enhance confidentiality and privacy, the respondents will not be required to include their names in the completed questionnaire. However, for purposes of identification, the researcher proposes to allocate random numerical tags to each one of the respondents. The confidentiality and privacy disclaimer will also be included in the introductory part of the questionnaire. The questionnaires will be availed online, and the researcher proposes to send links to those respondents who are Saudi Arabia students but who, for one reason or the other, are unable to fill out the questionnaire physically. The questionnaires will be administered during the fall semester of 2010 academic year. This is because fall semester of 2010 is the period during which the researcher plans to conduct the study.
The researcher proposes to use the Likert response scale to analyze the responses. Each response will be rated using the five points of the scale. These are; strongly agree, agree, uncertain, disagree, and strongly disagree. The Likert scale is proposed given the fact that it is a very apt tool for capturing the attitudes of the respondents, one of the major objectives of this study. The data from the Likert scale will be further analyzed using SPSS software. This is given that many statistics will be generated, and SPSS is a simple and very effective tool for handling statistics of this nature.
The findings will be based on various variables including demographic, use of technology (ICT and internet), attitude towards online learning (taking courses, model viability), extent of technology use (owning a PC, access to internet, opinion about-learning) among others (Chou & Liu, 2005, p. 65).
Limitations and Delimitations of the Research
Possible limitations could be that it will be restricted in terms of students in universities and tertiary colleges alone. This leaves out other education systems, such as high school and the like. As such, generalizations for the whole of the Saudi Arabian education system, and that of the world in extension, cannot be effectively made. Other education systems will not be studied given the limited resources of the study. It is recommended that Future research replicates the study across a range of education systems in different geographical areas like countries and this would greatly improve generalization. Additionally, researchers or investigators can increase the models used for study and test other components that influence online learning (Armatas et al, 2005, p. 86).
Significance of Study
The research will be very important to the students in Saudi Arabia and the world at large. This is because it will highlight the attitudes that are held by students and other stakeholders such as the faculty members as far as e-learning and ICT in Saudi Arabian education sector is concerned.
It is a fact beyond doubt that e-learning and ICT in Saudi Arabian education system have received little attention in the near past. This is given the fact that it is a new addition to the system. As such, the findings of this study will go a long way in enriching the knowledge base that exists in this field.
The findings will also be instrumental to future adoption of the technology in this country. This is because policy makers will make use of the attitudes and opinions held by students and members of faculties-as brought to light by this study-to inform their formulation of policies towards the same. The policies will thus address the needs and requirements of students and other stakeholders in the sector.
In addition, the findings will also inform other researches that will be carried out in the future in this field. Future researchers will consult these findings to contextualize their studies. This is because the current study will identify areas that need future attention, lacunas that need the attention of future researchers to be filled.
Saudi Arabia is bound to benefit a lot from e-learning considering the trends implied above and the benefits of knowledge-based economy. Learning in the modern world has undergone major transformations in the educational needs of the students. These changes are because of a variety in social, technical economical issues that function across the higher education profile starting from high schools (secondary schools) to the universities. The application of online learning is meant to be both a reaction to and reason for using these changes. Embracing technology offers new customs of providing for the conventional educational needs of the students and facilitates new form for supporting proper technology based learning. Conceptualization of the function of the support technology for the students, which has impact on professionalism, and development of the academic programs is needed. There is criticism that online learning is not responsive to the cultural diversity of the students, and just costly but minimally beneficial particularly in addressing culture and course content. This could be true especially when online learning concentrates on providing course content only, and fails to generate a culturally responsive learning environment.
The attitudes of the students and other stakeholders in the education sector of this country will go along way in determining the success-or lack of it thereof-of ICT integration in institutions of higher learning. This is because the attitudes and the opinions will determine the rate at which the students and the other stakeholders embrace technology and the use that they put it to. Negative attitude will hinder the development, while a positive and optimistic attitude will encourage the development.
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You have been selected as one of the respondents for this study. The aim of this research is to explore e-learning and use of information communication technology (ICT) in higher education in Saudi Arabia. Specific purpose includes the examination of the attitudes and opinions of students and faculties towards e-learning and adoption of ICT in Saudi Arabian institutions of higher learning. Please answer all the required questions as honestly as possible. Be informed that your responses will be used for the purposes of this study only, and will not be disclosed to third parties without your direct consent. Thanks in advance.
age at last birthday _____
- Male _____
- female _____
Mode of learning:
- Distant _____
- Classroom _____
Level of education:
- Graduate _____
- Undergraduate _____
Please tick where appropriate for the following section:
|1.||I support the integration of e-learning in the learning process|
|2.||It is my belief that e-learning helps me to learn more|
|3.||e-learning makes me to use internet a lot|
|4.||I oppose the use of e-learning in teaching|
|5.||Application of e-learning have helped me improve my academic performance|
|6.||I believe e-learning improves the interaction between the student and the teacher|
|7.||e-learning improves the interaction among students|
|8.||I believe the use of e-learning in the education system is a waste of time and resources|
|9.||It is advisable for all teachers to incorporate e-learning in their teaching|
|10.||Learning is made easier by e-learning|
|11.||The learning process is made boring by e-learning|
|12.||e-learning is faced by obstacles that are hard to deal with|
|13.||e-learning is unethical|
|14.||The challenges facing e-learning are easy to deal with|
|15.||Most students have embraced e-learning|
|16.||E-learning makes the learning process more interesting|
|17.||The computer skills of many students are improved after using e-learning|
Thank You for Your Cooperation