To begin with there is strong necessity to mention that behavioral analysis is generally regarded to be one of the key tasks of the Human Resource Management strategy. The fact is that, the main principles of behavioral analysis presuppose the implementation derived principles, which entail the analysis of the behavior in the context of the working environment, social relations within the personnel and the original managerial environment of the company.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the behavior of an employee of a company, where the personnel are of various background, working experience, age, responsibility, etc. Originally, this factor will be regarded as the central, while analyzing Kim’s behavior. The fact is that, the circumstances and the conditions of the task do not allow the increase of the salary or fire this employee, consequently, the analysis will be based on the central principles of behavior assessment and the matters, associated with conflict solving, which are generally accepted in the managerial practice. Another factor that requires particular emphasis is the influence of this employee on the allover performance of the team and the atmosphere. The fact of demoralization the other workers is observed, consequently, the measures should be strict enough to prevent further demoralization and failure of the productivity.
First, any analysis presupposes the theoretical background. The behavioral analysis presupposes taking into consideration the psychological and managerial factors. From the psychological point of view, behavior is the interaction of the organism or mind with the environment, and is the reaction is generally featured with the detectable displacement in time and space, and causes the changes of the environment, or the organism itself. In accordance with the psychological research by Cliff (2003, p. 451), the following statement should be emphasized:
Often, the term behavior is used to reference a larger class of responses that share physical dimensions or function. In this instance, the term response indicates a single instance of that behavior. If a group of responses have the same function, this group can be classified as a response class. Finally, when discussing a person’s collection of behavior, repertoire is used. Either it can pertain specifically to a set of response classes that are relevant to a particular situation, or it can refer to every behavior that a person can do.
The applied behavior analysis, from this point of view is associated with the matters of the subject matter in its own right. The analysis is generally pursued in three ways
- The experimental analysis of behavior as it is generally regarded and estimated in the natural environment. This approach generally undertakes the study on the basis of principal behavioral process in a biological perspective
- In applied behavior analysis the process of the research, procedures are often performed in the social context, especially if the analysis is associated with the behavior-environment relations of relatively immediate individual social and cultural perspective.
- The conceptual analysis of behavior generally addresses historical, philosophical and methodological perspective, as well as the theoretical background. (Keren and Lewis, 2004)
In accordance with Ferdinand Fournies Performance Analysis, it should be stated that Kim’s behavior should be regarded as the essential factor for the defining the working environment in general. It should be emphasized, that the original claim, which is regarded to be the key factor of behavior is neglected in this case study, consequently, all the factors, associated with the conflict solution, based on the behavior analysis will be performed on the basis of the research. (Fournies, 2000)
Kim’s behavior originates numerous problems for several spheres of the company’s activity. The fact is that, it is closely associated with the dissatisfaction of the original position, while the others, to the employee’s opinion, work in better conditions.
Kim’s complaints are that she is paid essentially lower than fellow workers with 7 years experience, as well as the newly hired employees. She claims that all the other workers, who receive higher salaries, are unorganized and unprepared. Moreover, their qualification is essentially lower, and most of their time is spent on the activity, which is not associated with direct working assignments.
As Ferdinand Fournies stated in his principles of performance analysis (Fournies, 2000), it should be emphasized that the original claims are based on the behavioral stereotype, which calls for the increased compensation, while the person works more productively and diligently then the others. Original Kim’s behavior is far from the stated, consequently, this may be regarded as the unreasonably increased self-assessment and self-assurance. In order to confirm this statement, the following fact should be emphasized: Kim claims that her peers do not spend the time sufficient time for developing the quality product. If some problems appear, they are solved not in a team mode, but everyone requires particular attention to his or her person for solving the appeared problem.
Thus, the working environment does not seem to be favorable for the successful development of the professional team. From this point of view, it should be stated that the environment, and its analysis might reveal at least partial innocence of Kim, as even if her claims are half-true, the problem is not only in her behavior. (Keren and Lewis, 2004)
The communication pattern, as well as the behavior styles of the person will be helpful for clarifying the necessary solution strategy for the case. Originally, it should be emphasized that Kim’s primary behavior style is dominance. Originally, it explains why she takes the responsibility for talking for the whole team, and why she considers herself superior. The fact is that, the dominance style presupposes the existence of superior self-appraisal.
Taking into consideration the fact that she is concerned with the allover workability of the team and productivity of the work in general, it should be emphasized that the secondary behavior style is conscientious. Basing on this premise, it should be stated that people with such behavior styles are not reluctant for discussing possible changes. Consequently, the compromise will be easy to find.
It should be emphasized that Kim normally listens to how a speaker develops the arguments, so it is not difficult to understand the rationale of the argument. Kim prefers organizing and making sense out of information. Taking into consideration the fact that she aims to compare everything she hears with her previous experience, there is strong necessity to emphasize that the value of this worker may be rather high, as not everyone is capable to analyze one’s previous experience while analyzing the current situation. She asks questions to clarify speaker’s intentions. She can generally figure out what is being said if there is some confusion, they are able to explain the speaker’s message in their own words. Her primary listening style needs to be determined on this basis. Taking into consideration the fact that she listens eagerly to the opponent, it should be emphasized that her reaction is rather adequate, and listening style may be defined as comprehensive. From the light of the fact of this perspective, there is strong necessity to mention that comprehensive listening is one of the most favorable styles for reaching compromise.
The classical communication pattern, which is used by Kim, is creative. It means, that she is rather witty in taking decisions, analyzing the information and evaluating the situation.
Originally, the combination of these styles and types offer the favorable situation for reaching the compromise, as such persons are featured with empathy, logical reasoning and adequate assessment of the situation. Consequently, all the recommendations and possible solutions will be based on the principles of mutual empathy, and, probably, some measures will be strict enough in order to prevent thee further demoralization of the team, as the reasoning by Kim do not promote the increase in productivity and allover performance within a team.
Categories of Weakness
To begin with, there is strong necessity to summarize the previously stated results: Kim’s primary behavior style is dominance, secondary is conscientious, the classical pattern is regarded as creative, and the listening style is comprehensive.
In the light of this fact, it should be emphasized that the weaknesses, which may be revealed in accordance to this consideration are the following:
- The other workers do not possess the same features and capabilities, consequently, if it appears that the other workers will not be able to participate in the negotiations. Thus, the benefit of the solution will be hard to classify from the perspective of the rest of the team
- Taking into consideration the fact that there is no authority for increasing the salary or firing workers, it should be emphasized that the central claim of the solution will be either associated with administrative punishment, or the increase of the responsibility range for Kim.
- In the light of the perspective that the primary behavior style of Kim is dominance, and she has distinct features of leadership, it will be impossible to leave the things as is in relation to her.
- Basing on the consideration that the allover working environment was influenced by Kim, she may be regarded as an informal leader of the team, and the links with the trade union may be rather extensive.
- Finally, simply fining or lowering will not solve the situation, as compromise with Kim is essential
Strategies for Increasing Effectiveness
As it is stated in Fournies (Fournies, 2000), one of the most effective ways to increase the productivity within a team is to advance the informal leader. Kim, as an informal leader has an extensive influence on the allover productivity, and, the fact is that, this productivity has essentially lowered, after the complaints were originated. Taking into account the fact, that it is impossible just to increase the salary, the solution strategy should be the following: First, there is strong necessity to hint at the fact, that these complaints have originated the demoralization within a company, and Kim is responsible for it. In order to satisfy the claims, the company should offer Kim to lead the department she is working in for the test period, and, taking into consideration the responsibility for the decreased productivity, her salary will not be increased for this period. Then, if she manages to resolve the situation from the position of the new responsibilities, she may be left at the position of the head of the department.
Another solution, which is possible, is to offer Kim a business trip, or an opportunity to enter the qualification improvement courses. The team will calm down, while she is absent, thus, the management of the company will be able to solve the conflict. Another job may be offered to her in accordance with her new qualification.
The third way of solving the problem is offering Kim an opportunity to restructure the teamwork in accordance with her considerations, if she will be able to prove her rightness for the managerial team and for the workers of her team. If the innovations appear to be effective, all the other claims, originated by Kim, will be satisfied.
Another strategy, which may be offered is the solution, which is in accordance with Fournies may be regarded as the least effective, nevertheless, it sounds reasonable in the context of the voiced claims and complaints. The fact is that, Kim did not take into account the fact that the team neither supports her, nor refuses from her influence. This neutral position may be reasoned as ignorance, and the compromise, which will be reached, will be touching upon the issues of unpreparedness and lack of organization within a team.
At least the final strategy, which, may be offered is to propose Kim leave the company willfully. Surely, it can not be regarded as the suitable solution, moreover, the company will lose an experienced worker, nevertheless, if the previously described strategies appear to be ineffective, it will be the only solution possible.
As for the matters of recommendations, it should be stated that all of them would be concerned with the behavior of the workers, and the allover working environment. Thus, in order to apply the offered strategies, there is strong necessity to follow the following tips:
- Identify unsatisfactory performance
- Define whether it is serious enough for influencing the allover performance
- Arrange the elaboration of the new set of responsibilities, for the workers knew their working tasks
- Minimize the negative consequences of the restructuring
- Encourage other workers to provide initiatives
- Apply coaching norms and practices for regulating the behavior within a team
- Satisfy the complaints and prevent further instances of dissatisfaction of the workers.
Finally, it should be emphasized that the analysis of the behavior practices and the performance of the team, associated with this behavior is performed in accordance with Ferdinand Fournies Performance Analysis recommendations, and all the strategies, as well as further recommendations are based on his research. Thus, there is strong necessity to mention that the main principle, which is pursued in this analysis is the opportunity of providing the required claims without violating thee basic rights of the workers.
Cliff, N. (2003). Ordinal Methods for Behavioral Data Analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Fournies, F. (2000) Coaching for improved work performance. McGraw Hill.
Keren, G. & Lewis, C. (Eds.). (2004). A Handbook for Data Analysis in the Behavioral Sciences: Statistical Issues. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.